The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is one of the world’s longest-running conflicts, with roots dating back to the late 19th century. The core of the conflict is the competing claims of Israelis and Palestinians to the same piece of land, the Holy Land.
In 1947, the United Nations proposed a partition plan to divide the British Mandate of Palestine into two states, one Jewish and one Arab. The Jewish community accepted the plan, but the Arab community rejected it. In 1948, the State of Israel was declared, and the surrounding Arab countries launched a war to try to prevent its creation.
The war ended in 1949, with Israel in control of most of the territory of the former Mandate of Palestine. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians were displaced during the war, and many fled to neighboring countries.
The current situation:
Today, Israel controls the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem. The West Bank and Gaza Strip are considered to be Palestinian territories under international law, but Israel has maintained a military occupation of these territories for over 50 years.
The Palestinian people have limited self-government in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, but they are not sovereign. The Israeli government has built settlements in the West Bank, which are considered illegal under international law. These settlements have fragmented the West Bank and made it more difficult for the Palestinians to establish a viable state.
There have been numerous attempts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, but none have been successful. The most recent peace talks broke down in 2014.
The international community has generally supported the two-state solution, which would involve the creation of a Palestinian state alongside Israel.
However, there are significant disagreements about how to achieve the two-state solution, such as the borders of the two states, the status of Jerusalem, and the right of return for Palestinian refugees.
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